– American English Pronunciation –

– ( Letter R:  Ref ) –


An alphabetical pronunciation guide of The Common Tongue – a.k.a. – American English Pronunciation, containing the phonetic spellings of a vast selection of common and not-so-common words in the English language, with more added daily.

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The pronunciations are not Universal as there are many different dialects of the English language, both world-wide and throughout America. The pronunciations that are presented here are based upon a combination of both common usage and the most neutral accent used in The International Common Tongue.

Ref

 

Ra . Rea . Reb . Rec . Red . Reg . Reh . Rej . Rel . Rem . Ren . Rep . Req . Res . Ret . Reu . Rev . Rew . Rh . Ri . Ro . Ru . Ry

 

Refer
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, and the second “e” disappears

/rə-F’R//ɹə.ˈfɚ/ – Notice also that the stress is on the seond syllable

 

Reference
– For this word, the first “e” is short, the second “e” disappears, and for the “-ence” suffix – the “e” turns into an i-schwa, the “c” is soft,
and the final “e” is silent (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/REH-frihn-s//ˈɹɛ.fɹə(ɪ)n.s/ – Notice also that the stress is on the first syllable and that the “s” ending acts as a third syllable

 

References
– For this word, the first “e” is short, the second “e” disappears,for the “-ence” suffix – the “e” turns into an i-schwa, the “c” is soft,
and the final “e” combines with the “-es” ending and turns into an i-schwa (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue), and the final “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”

/REHF-rehn-sihz//ˈɹɛ.fɹə(ɪ)n.sə(ɪ)z/ – Notice also that the stress is on the first syllable

 

Referendum
– For this word, the first “e” is short, the second “e” disappears, the third “e” is short, and the “u” turns into a true-schwa

/reh-f’r-EHN-dəm//ɹɛ.fɚ.ˈɛn.dəm/ – Notice also that the stress is on the third syllable

 

Referral
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” disappears, the “rr” combination is pronounced almost like (this is a product of the transition from one sound to the next), for the “-al” suffix – the “a” turns into a true-schwa (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/rə-F’R-rəl//ɹə.ˈfɚ.ɹəl/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Referrals
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” disappears, the “rr” combination is pronounced simply like the single letter “r” (this is the standard pronunciation of this letter combination in The Common Tongue), for the “-al” suffix – the “a” turns into a true-schwa (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue), and the final “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”

/rə-F’R-əl-z//ɹə.ˈfɚ.əl.z/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refers
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” disappears, and the final “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”

/rə-F’R-z//ɹə.ˈfɚ.z/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable and that the “s” ending acts as a third syllable

 

Refill (re-Fill)
– For this word, the “e” is long, the “i” is short, and the “ll” combination is pronounced simply like single letter “l” (this is the standard pronunciation of this letter combination in The Common Tongue)

/ree-FIHL//ɹiː.ˈfɪl/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Reflect
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” is short, and the “c” is hard but is (often) stopped

/rə-FLEH[K]-t//ɹə.ˈflɛ[k].t/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable and that the “t” ending acts as a third syllable

 

Reflection
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” is short, the “c” is hard but is almost stopped, and for the “-tion” suffix – the “ti” combination is pronounced like the un-voiced “sh” combination, and the “o” turns into an i-schwa (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/rə-FLEHK-shuhn//ɹə.ˈflɛk.ʃə(ɪ)n/ – Notice how the stress is on the second syllable

 

Reform (re-Form)
– For this word, the “e” turns into a true-schwa, and the “o” is long

/rə-FOHR-m//ɹə.ˈfoɹ.m/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable and that the “m” ending acts as a third syllable

 

Refresh (re-Fresh)
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” is short, and the “sh” combination is un-voiced

/rə-FREHSH//ɹə.ˈfɹɛʃ/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refreshing (re-Fresh-ing)
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” is short, the “sh” combination is un-voiced, and the “-ing” suffix is pronounced like in the word “sing” or “ring” (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/rə-FREH-shing//ɹə.ˈfɹɛ.ʃɪŋ/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refreshingly (re-Fresh-ing-ly)
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the second “e” is short, the “sh” combination is un-voiced, the “-ing” suffix is pronounced like in the word “sing” or “ring” (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue), and for the “-ly” suffix – the final “y” is pronounced like the long letter “e” (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/rə-FREH-shing-lee//ɹə.ˈfɹɛ.ʃɪŋ.liː/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refrigerator
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “i” is short, the “g” is soft, the second “e” disappears, the “a” is a True Long “A”, the second “t” is a flap-t, and for the “-or” suffix – the “o” disappears (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/rə-FRIH-dʒ’r-ay-d’r//ɹə.ˈfɹɪ.dʒɚ.e.ɾɚ/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refrigerators
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “i” is short, the “g” is soft, the second “e” disappears, the “a” is a True Long “A”, the second “t” is a flap-t, and for the “-or” suffix – the “o” disappears (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue), and the final “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”

/rə-FRIH-dʒ’r-ay-d’rz//ɹə.ˈfɹɪ.dʒɚ.e.ɾɚz/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refugees
– For this word, the first “e” is short, the “u” if pronounced like the pronoun “you”, the “g” is soft, the “ee” combination is pronounced simply like the single long letter “e” (this is the standard pronunciation of this letter combination in The Common Tongue), and the final “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”

/REHF-yoo-dʒeez//ˈrɛf.ju.dʒiːz/ – Notice also that the stress is on the first syllable

 

Refund (re-Fund)
– For this word, the first “e” is long, the “u” is short, and the final “d” is (often) stopped

/REE-fuhn[d]//ˈɹiː.fʌn.[d]/ – Notice also that the stress can be on the first or the second syllable

 

Refunded (re-Fund-ed)
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “u” is short, and since the root-word ends with the letter “d”, the “e” of the “-ed” ending turns into an i-schwa, and the final “d” is a flap-d but is (often) stopped

/rə-FUHN-dih[d]//ɹə.ˈfʌn.də(ɪ)[ɾ]/ – Notice also that the stress can be on the first or the second syllable

 

Refurbish
– For this word, the “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “u” disappears, the first “i” is an i-schwa, the final “sh” combination is un-voiced

/ree-F’R-bihsh//ɹiː.ˈfəɹ.bə(ɪ)ʃ/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refurbishing
– For this word, the “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “u” disappears, the first “i” is an i-schwa, the “sh” combination is un-voiced, and the “-ing” suffix is pronounced like in the word “sing” or “ring” (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/ree-F’R-bih-shing//ɹiː.ˈfəɹ.bə(ɪ).ʃɪŋ/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refusal (re-Fuse-al)
– For this word, the “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “u” is pronounced like the pronoun “you”, the “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”, and for the “-al” suffix – the “a” turns into a true-schwa (this is the standard pronunciation of this suffix in The Common Tongue)

/rə-FYOO-zəl//ɹə.ˈfju.zəl/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

Refuse (re-Fuse)
– For this word, the first “e” turns into a true-schwa, the “u” is pronounced like the pronoun “you”, the “s” is pronounced almost like the letter “z”, and the final “e” is silent

/rə-FYOOZ//ɹə.ˈfjuz/ – Notice also that the stress is on the second syllable

 

– ( American English Pronunciation – Letter R ) –


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